How Effective are Mentoring Programs for Youth?

According to DuBois, Portillo, Rhodes, Silverthorn, and Valentine (2011) there has been a dramatic increase in the number of, and funding for, mentoring programs over the past decade. In order to investigate the effectiveness of these programs, these authors conducted a meta-analysis of 73 studies evaluating mentoring initiatives for children and adolescents. They found that [...]

Adolescents Living the 24/7 Lifestyle

Calamaro, Mason, and Ratcliffe (2009) investigated the association between technology use, caffeine intake, and sleep behaviors in adolescents. The authors noted that sleep duration has decreased markedly for adolescents over the past 40 years and that insufficient sleep in that age group has been linked to a variety of psychological and physical health problems, ranging [...]

Preschools Reduce Early Academic Achievement Gaps

Despite documented associations between social class and school quality, children from impoverished backgrounds still stand to benefit from preschool education. In fact, studies have shown that children from low-income homes may obtain greater gains from preschool during the year before kindergarten than do higher income children. Tucker-Drob (2012) sought to determine whether differences between children [...]

Participation in a School-Based HPV Vaccination Program

Research on decisions about HPV vaccination has focused primarily on attitudes as opposed to behavior. These studies have found more favorable attitudes among parents with older adolescents, greater knowledge about or experience with HPV, greater perceptions of risk, and exposure to the positive recommendations of authority figures. On the other hand, parents who perceive their [...]

Successful Truancy Intervention in an Urban High School

Truancy is a significant problem in U. S. schools, with male students in urban schools most likely to miss school. Research has shown that truant behavior is a strong predictor of dropping out of high school. Nationwide, fewer than three quarters of students graduate from high school, and in urban high schools in low income [...]

Childhood Violence Exposure and Disability

Disability and childhood exposure to violence are interconnected.  Children with disabilities are more likely than nondisabled children to experience violence.  Those with behavioral disorders and language impairments experience the highest rates of abuse.  In addition, children who experience violence are more likely to become disabled. For example, up to one quarter of childhood brain injuries [...]

Why Low-Income Children Miss Opportunities to Participate in Activities Outside of School

Children in low-income families may have few opportunities to participate in activities that provide the developmental enrichment central to children’s social, emotional, and cognitive well-being. Previous research identified numerous benefits of participation in these activities (such as sports, music lessons, and community clubs), including higher levels of academic achievement and lower levels of substance abuse.  [...]

A Nationwide Trial of the KiVa Antibullying Program

Bullying among youth has been associated with a range of mental health and behavioral problems, including depression, anxiety, poor academic performance, poor school attendance, suicide, and violence. In one of only a few large scale evaluations of bullying interventions, Kärnä, Voeten, Little, Poskiparta, Alanen, and Salmivalli (2011) assessed the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program, [...]

What “No Child Left Behind” Leaves Behind

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 requires each state in the United States to administer an achievement test every year in order to receive funding for K-12 public schools.  These tests are the primary means of determining whether a school has improved student performance and are intended to be an objective measure which [...]

Do Babies Learn from Baby Media?

In America alone, parents of infants spend hundreds of millions of dollars on baby media with the expectation that it will increase the vocabulary of their young children. The question of whether babies actually learn from these DVDs and videos is of interest to many psychologists. DeLoache, Chiong, Sherman, Islam, Vanderborght, Troseth, Strouse, and O’Doherty [...]