Family and Relationships

The Effects of the Recession on Child Development

The “Great Recession” of 2007-2009 brought decreases in real household income as well as sharp increases in unemployment, home foreclosures, and rates of food insecurity. Kalil (2013) reviewed empirical studies of the effects of the economic downturn on children’s development. Among key findings were: (1) Young people whose parents experienced job loss were more likely [...]

Military Youth and the Deployment Cycle

Esposito-Smythers and colleagues (2011) reviewed empirical studies of the effects of parents’ deployment on military youth. According to these authors, three fifths of deployed U.S. service members have spouses and/or children and over two million children have been affected by wartime deployments since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom. [...]

Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents

Legal and policy debates concerning adoption, foster care, and custody by lesbian and gay parents have focused on three primary areas of concern about child development. These include the development of gender identity (the individual’s sense of being female or male), the development of gender roles (behavior that conforms to norms about how women and [...]

Are Parents Responsible for Juvenile Crime?

Laws have been enacted in jurisdictions across the U.S. that hold parents responsible for the delinquent behavior of their children. Yet, little information is available on public support for these laws. Brank, Greene, and Hochevar (2011) argued that this information is important because level of public support could influence authorities’ enforcement of, and parents’ compliance [...]

Cultural Socialization in Transracial Adoption

Growing numbers of adoptions have been transracial and international. In previous research on transracial adoption, the use of cultural socialization practices was found to be positively correlated with children’s adjustment, sense of belongingness with parents, self-esteem, racial/ethnic identity development, and ability to cope with discrimination.  These practices may range from those that involve little contact [...]

College Student Language Brokers

“Language broker” is the term used to describe children from immigrant families who are placed in the role of translating written and spoken communication for their parents.  The literature on language brokers has been inconsistent in terms of the effects on identity and well-being.  Weisskirch, Kim, Zamboanga, Schwartz, Bersamin, and Umaña-Taylor (2011) suggested that language [...]

Terrorism Salience Increases Authoritarian Parenting

The threat of terrorism has become increasingly salient in Western societies following the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, the 2004 Madrid train bombings, and the 2005 London bombings. Previous research has indicated that perceived threat increases authoritarian attitudes, such as intolerance, conforming to authority, and aggression toward violators of social norms. Fischer and colleagues investigated [...]

Loosening the Link between Childhood Poverty and Adolescent Smoking and Obesity

Poverty is often associated with elevated health risks, such as a higher body mass index (BMI) and increased smoking behavior. Evans and Kutcher (2011) hypothesized that the negative effects of poverty on adolescent health may be reduced by sufficient social capital. In this study, social capital was defined as (1) Community cohesion — social ties [...]