Health and Healthcare

Cannabis Use and Driving Performance

Increased legalization of medical and recreational cannabis has led to concern about a possible proliferation of cannabis-impaired drivers. Dahlgren and colleagues noted that most of the research on the effects of cannabis for driving have focused on acutely intoxicated individuals rather than the non-immediate effects of heavy recreational use. They administered tests in a driving [...]

Overconfidence and Anti-Vaccination Attitudes

There is strong consensus among scientists that vaccines are safe and effective in combating the spread of disease. Why, then, does such a large segment of the public believe false claims of a link between vaccines and autism and hold “anti-vax” attitudes? Matthew Motta, Timothy Callaghan, and Steven Sylvester (2018) suggested that this is due [...]

Predictors of Long-Term Opioid Use

An increase in opioid use disorders and fatal overdoses has resulted in a public health crisis in many regions of the United States and Canada. At the same time, as Thielke and colleagues (2017) pointed out, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of the long-term use of opioids to treat chronic pain. Thus, [...]

Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Reasons for Using E-Cigarettes

Recent Center for Disease Control (CDC) statistics indicate that the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a serious threat to efforts to reduce nicotine addiction among adolescents and young adults. Kong and colleagues (2015) conducted a serious of focus groups with students at the middle school, high school, and college level to better understand [...]

Encouraging Blood Donations

Previous research on blood donation has focused on identifying ways to attract new donors. In contrast, Sénémeaud and colleagues investigated strategies to encourage individuals who had donated in the past to donate more regularly. Based on self-perception theory, which suggests that people infer their own attitudes by observing their own behavior, the researchers tested whether [...]

Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk

African American adolescents are at increased risk for violence exposure, which includes being the victim of violence as well as witnessing violence. Wilson and colleagues (2012) observed that few studies have addressed the impact of violence exposure on African American girls. They were particularly interested in the relationship between violence exposure and sexual health, since [...]

Adolescents Living the 24/7 Lifestyle

Calamaro, Mason, and Ratcliffe (2009) investigated the association between technology use, caffeine intake, and sleep behaviors in adolescents. The authors noted that sleep duration has decreased markedly for adolescents over the past 40 years and that insufficient sleep in that age group has been linked to a variety of psychological and physical health problems, ranging [...]

Participation in a School-Based HPV Vaccination Program

Research on decisions about HPV vaccination has focused primarily on attitudes as opposed to behavior. These studies have found more favorable attitudes among parents with older adolescents, greater knowledge about or experience with HPV, greater perceptions of risk, and exposure to the positive recommendations of authority figures. On the other hand, parents who perceive their [...]

Message Framing and Visual Aids Increase Condom Use and STD Screening

Research has indicated that the way in which health messages are framed has a significant impact on the degree to which they influence attitudes and behavior. One important dimension of framing is gain vs. loss. Gain-framed messages focus on the benefits of adopting specific health practices, whereas loss-framed messages focus on the dangers of failing [...]

Bridge Employment and Retirees’ Health

As populations age in many countries throughout the world, researchers are seeking to identify strategies for maintaining good health in older adults. Studies investigating predictors of health during retirement have found better health outcomes for those who have higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and involvement in postcareer activities. Yet, little is known about the [...]