Health and Healthcare

Predictors of Long-Term Opioid Use

An increase in opioid use disorders and fatal overdoses has resulted in a public health crisis in many regions of the United States and Canada. At the same time, as Thielke and colleagues (2017) pointed out, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of the long-term use of opioids to treat chronic pain. Thus, [...]

Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Reasons for Using E-Cigarettes

Recent Center for Disease Control (CDC) statistics indicate that the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a serious threat to efforts to reduce nicotine addiction among adolescents and young adults. Kong and colleagues (2015) conducted a serious of focus groups with students at the middle school, high school, and college level to better understand [...]

Encouraging Blood Donations

Previous research on blood donation has focused on identifying ways to attract new donors. In contrast, Sénémeaud and colleagues investigated strategies to encourage individuals who had donated in the past to donate more regularly. Based on self-perception theory, which suggests that people infer their own attitudes by observing their own behavior, the researchers tested whether [...]

Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk

African American adolescents are at increased risk for violence exposure, which includes being the victim of violence as well as witnessing violence. Wilson and colleagues (2012) observed that few studies have addressed the impact of violence exposure on African American girls. They were particularly interested in the relationship between violence exposure and sexual health, since [...]

Adolescents Living the 24/7 Lifestyle

Calamaro, Mason, and Ratcliffe (2009) investigated the association between technology use, caffeine intake, and sleep behaviors in adolescents. The authors noted that sleep duration has decreased markedly for adolescents over the past 40 years and that insufficient sleep in that age group has been linked to a variety of psychological and physical health problems, ranging [...]

Participation in a School-Based HPV Vaccination Program

Research on decisions about HPV vaccination has focused primarily on attitudes as opposed to behavior. These studies have found more favorable attitudes among parents with older adolescents, greater knowledge about or experience with HPV, greater perceptions of risk, and exposure to the positive recommendations of authority figures. On the other hand, parents who perceive their [...]

Message Framing and Visual Aids Increase Condom Use and STD Screening

Research has indicated that the way in which health messages are framed has a significant impact on the degree to which they influence attitudes and behavior. One important dimension of framing is gain vs. loss. Gain-framed messages focus on the benefits of adopting specific health practices, whereas loss-framed messages focus on the dangers of failing [...]

Bridge Employment and Retirees’ Health

As populations age in many countries throughout the world, researchers are seeking to identify strategies for maintaining good health in older adults. Studies investigating predictors of health during retirement have found better health outcomes for those who have higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and involvement in postcareer activities. Yet, little is known about the [...]

Resilient Afghan Women Coping with Violence and Immigration

Exposure to war-related violence is a common experience of Afghan women who immigrate to the United States. Although previous research has identified detrimental effects of war-related trauma and displacement on survivors’ mental health, other studies have demonstrated resilience and successful coping strategies.  Welsh and Brodsky (2010) used a mental health checklist and conducted qualitative individual [...]

Perceived Racism and Mental Health Among Black Americans

To investigate the relationship between perceived racism and well-being, Pieterse, Todd, Neville, and Carter (2012) conducted a meta-analysis of 66 peer-reviewed studies published between 1996 and 2011 that involved a total of 18,140 Black American adults. Individuals who reported more exposure to racism and who appraised these incidents as more stressful were more likely to [...]