Health and Healthcare

Resilient Afghan Women Coping with Violence and Immigration

Exposure to war-related violence is a common experience of Afghan women who immigrate to the United States. Although previous research has identified detrimental effects of war-related trauma and displacement on survivors’ mental health, other studies have demonstrated resilience and successful coping strategies.  Welsh and Brodsky (2010) used a mental health checklist and conducted qualitative individual [...]

Perceived Racism and Mental Health Among Black Americans

To investigate the relationship between perceived racism and well-being, Pieterse, Todd, Neville, and Carter (2012) conducted a meta-analysis of 66 peer-reviewed studies published between 1996 and 2011 that involved a total of 18,140 Black American adults. Individuals who reported more exposure to racism and who appraised these incidents as more stressful were more likely to [...]

Integrating Smartphone Technology in Behavioral Healthcare

With smartphone ownership quickly becoming commonplace in many countries, the number of available applications (apps) has continued to soar.  A growing number of these, according to Luxton, McCann, Bush, Mishkind, and Reger (2011), are designed to facilitate mental health education, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. Examples include apps that track symptoms and if indicated offer a [...]

Ironic Effects of Dietary Supplementation

One might expect that the increased availability of dietary supplements would result in improvements in public health. Chiou, Yang, and Wan (2011) suggested that the opposite might occur. They hypothesized that taking a dietary supplement might increase one’s sense of invulnerability and thus lead to taking greater health risks. Eighty-two Taiwanese participants were asked to [...]

Motivating Hand Hygiene

Recent efforts to cut hospital infection rates have focused new attention on the hand washing behavior of health care professionals. Grant and Hofman (2011) suggested that lower than recommended rates of hand washing among these workers may be due to a sense of invulnerability to disease, since they are continually exposed to illness, but rarely [...]

Loosening the Link between Childhood Poverty and Adolescent Smoking and Obesity

Poverty is often associated with elevated health risks, such as a higher body mass index (BMI) and increased smoking behavior. Evans and Kutcher (2011) hypothesized that the negative effects of poverty on adolescent health may be reduced by sufficient social capital. In this study, social capital was defined as (1) Community cohesion — social ties [...]

Eating for Pleasure or Profit

Should parents offer rewards in order to increase their children’s consumption of vegetables? Past research has yielded conflicting results about the undermining effect that extrinsic rewards may have on children’s intrinsic motivation. Cooke, Chambers, Añez, Croker, Boniface, Yeomans, and Wardle (2011) examined the short-term and long-term effects of rewarding 4-6 year old children for eating [...]