Research Methods

Cannabis Use and Driving Performance

Increased legalization of medical and recreational cannabis has led to concern about a possible proliferation of cannabis-impaired drivers. Dahlgren and colleagues noted that most of the research on the effects of cannabis for driving have focused on acutely intoxicated individuals rather than the non-immediate effects of heavy recreational use. They administered tests in a driving [...]

“Green” Personality Traits Predict Environmentally Friendly Behavior

Research on predictors of environmentally friendly behavior has tended to focus on attitudes, values, and norms. This study investigated the role of basic personality traits in predicting a component of environmentalism: actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., using public transportation, composting, reducing meat consumption). Brick and Lewis (2016) predicted that environmental attitudes would mediate [...]

Encouraging Blood Donations

Previous research on blood donation has focused on identifying ways to attract new donors. In contrast, Sénémeaud and colleagues investigated strategies to encourage individuals who had donated in the past to donate more regularly. Based on self-perception theory, which suggests that people infer their own attitudes by observing their own behavior, the researchers tested whether [...]

Brain Imaging and Lie Detection

Previous research has pointed to the inability of humans to reliably detect lies in others. Studies have demonstrated that polygraph data is also frequently inaccurate and unreliable, and it is generally prohibited as admissible evidence in courtrooms in the U.S. Thus, new forms of technology have been sought as an objective method of lie detection. [...]

Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot

As compared with White criminal suspects, Black suspects are overrepresented among those shot and killed by police officers. Record keeping methods make it difficult to assess these rates for Asians and Latino/as, groups are expected to increase significantly in the U. S. population in the coming decades. According to Sadler and colleagues, many factors may [...]

Are Parents Responsible for Juvenile Crime?

Laws have been enacted in jurisdictions across the U.S. that hold parents responsible for the delinquent behavior of their children. Yet, little information is available on public support for these laws. Brank, Greene, and Hochevar (2011) argued that this information is important because level of public support could influence authorities’ enforcement of, and parents’ compliance [...]

Successful Truancy Intervention in an Urban High School

Truancy is a significant problem in U. S. schools, with male students in urban schools most likely to miss school. Research has shown that truant behavior is a strong predictor of dropping out of high school. Nationwide, fewer than three quarters of students graduate from high school, and in urban high schools in low income [...]

A Nationwide Trial of the KiVa Antibullying Program

Bullying among youth has been associated with a range of mental health and behavioral problems, including depression, anxiety, poor academic performance, poor school attendance, suicide, and violence. In one of only a few large scale evaluations of bullying interventions, Kärnä, Voeten, Little, Poskiparta, Alanen, and Salmivalli (2011) assessed the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program, [...]

Psychological Consequences of Exposure to Gang Violence

Gang and community violence is a significant public health risk, with adolescents more likely to be the victims of violence than adults. Kelly (2010) conducted an extensive literature review to investigate the psychological consequences to adolescents of exposure to gang and community violence. She reviewed 103 studies on this topic that were published in peer-reviewed [...]

Mindfulness Predicts Less Texting While Driving

Large numbers of young adults text while driving. Feldman, Greeson, Renna, and Robbins-Monteith conducted research aimed at identifying individual differences that might predict this dangerous, and often illegal, behavior. These authors hypothesized that texting-while-driving might be inversely correlated with mindfulness, a tendency to intentionally attend to present moment internal and external experiences. They reviewed previous [...]